Jambudveep's Blog

March 19, 2015

Kambuj (Cambodia) Inscriptions- Neak Ta Dang Inscription of Jayavarman

As part of learning Sanskrit I have started going through some published inscriptions.My starting point is the book “Inscriptions of Kambuj ” by R C Majumdar. These are essentially Sanskrit inscriptions from the Hindu empires of greater India,the focus of this book being on Cambodia.

From time to time I will be posting regular translations of the inscriptions.As my knowledge of Sanskrit if rudimentary at best,these have been translated word by word by my father Prof.Yajneshwar Shastri. I am only stitching them into coherent sentences.Hence if the translation is not upto the mark,its my  responsibility.

I would appreciate corrections/suggestions from those who have an expert knowledge of Sanskrit.I would also appreciate if people knowledgeable in regional languages can translate these into Marathi,Gujarati ,Kannada,Hindi etc. We need to aim for a wider dispersal of this source material.

The first translation is of the Neak Ta Dang Inscription of Jayavarman (pg 1-2),which describes a grant of a golden image by his wife Kulaprabhavati Devi,from the year 467 CE. I am also posting a scan of the original text from the book for easy reference of the readers.I will try and post a glossary of words if possible.

Parts of the missing inscription are indicated by “…….”.

युञ्जन् – practising ,   योगमतः – according to yoga sutra,

 

1. “My lord Vishnu, (Who is ) practicing yoga, (whose) unimaginable body reclines on the bed which is in the shape of Adisesa, in the milky white room;

On (whose) stomach the three worlds are supported, and from whose navel arises the lotus (on which Lord Brahma sits), protect the chief queen of Sri Jayavarman.

 

2. (The Queen) named Kulaprabhavati,whose influence furthers the lineage,is the only one beheld by the victorious Jayavarma.

 

3. “Houses of Vipra’s (Brahmanas) in Kurumvanagara……..

Making the golden image………………………………………

(Being) Engrossed in the activity of work……..

Not partaking in the enjoyment of facilities…………..”

 

4. ” It is well known by all that the wife of the king is like : Shachi,the wife of Indra; the wife of Agni; Parvati,the wife of Hara (Lord Shiva) and like Lxami, the wife of Lord Vishnu.

A strong desire of seeing on earth Goddess Laxmi…….. (?)

 

5.” The beloved of Sri Jayavarman…………………

Making relations happy…………………………………….

Knowing that all enjoyment is transitory like bubbles of water……………………..

A small hut in the small lake in the pleasure garden……………………………..”

 

 

 

May 16, 2014

The Victory of Lata Naresh Narendra Modi, an occasion to celebrate or to contemplate on the future?

Filed under: Strategy — Yogeshwar Shastri @ 11:14 am
Tags: , , , , , ,

The overwhelming victory of Lata Naresh Narendra Modi  although an occasion for celebration, has agitated my mind due to some parallels in our history. To elaborate my point, I will discuss two seemingly separate but deeply interlinked strands of thought.

The main question which has perplexed me for some time now is : Are we heading for another battle of Panipat/ Tarain type situation?

In the long term I see this as a sign of Hindu resurgence which has been going on for the last 800 odd years. There is no doubt in my mind that eventually the wave of Sanatana Dharma will sweep across Bharata and across Asia like a tsunami, but for this there will be first a major retreat and consolidation of Hindus.I will expound on this further at a later point of time. However in the short term it might signal that we are being setup for a fall by the Semitic forces (Christianity and Islam).

I will first focus on a particular episode of  history before delving down into the strategic relevance of  Narendra Modi’s victory.

Remembering the Sankranti of 1761 CE

We need to rewind back in time to 1760 CE. Our eyes behold the fleet horses and the hardy warriors of the Marathas breaking the soil of Northern India under their feet. This year seems to herald the dawn of a golden age for the Hindus, where for the first time in centuries the saffron flag is fluttering over both Southern and Northern India. Nothing can stand in the way of the thundering Maratha horse, as it sweeps Islamic armies like flotsam. The restoration of Hindu rule in Delhi seems a foregone conclusion. However, political compulsions of the Gangetic plains force the Marathas to keep the puppet Mughal emperor Shah Alam on the peacock throne of Delhi.

This calm is actually the lull before the storm. The Afghan hordes under Ahmed Shah Abdali pour into Bharata answering their Muslim kins call for help against the kafir Maharattas. At first skirmishes rage between the two lions, culminating in a climatic battle near Panipat on 14th January 1761.The Maratha lion is badly mauled but not before inflicting mortal wounds on the Afghan invaders. This is the first battle of Panipat, where the invader does not become the ruler of Delhi. Although the fresh Islamic jihad is fought to a stalemate, this defeat results in the loss of an entire generation of superb military leaders of the Maratha army.The massacre and rape of Maratha civilians was one of the side horrors of this defeat. This irreparable loss then puts to paid Hindu expansion plans for another generation, by which time ( the 1780’s) the firangis are fast emerging as a formidable challenger.( a better and more accurate view of the Battle of Panipat can be found on Kalchirons blog).

The intervening British interlude with all its horrors debilitated the Hindu spirit and gave a fresh infusion of life to the Islamic jihad.

The March of armies from Lata (Gujarat) to Dhillika (Delhi)

Having had that background, we delve deeper into attempts by Hindus from Lata to wrest power from the Delhi Sultanate and its various incarnations over the years (including the Indian National Congress).

The impending victory of Gurjara Naresh Narendra Modi can be interpreted as Hindus  of Bharata collectively placing their hope on the ruler of Gujarat to salvage the dire situation which faces Bharata today. In the last 822 years this is probably the first time that the forces of Lata (Gujarat) have stormed Delhi successfully. Although Gujarat suffered under Islamic rule for over 400 years, Hindu’s in Lata have retained a strong affinity towards their religion. Below is a brief overview of previous attempts by rulers of Lata at restoring Hindu supremacy in Northern India. I have taken the defeat of Prithviraj Chauhan in 1192 CE as the starting point.

1. The first attempt started off soon after establishment of Islamic rule in Delhi. During the 1200’s, the armies of Lata were operating as far as Ajmer and were engaged in helping the remnants of the Chauhan forces to fight Qutb-ud-din Aibak. A further study is needed as to why these attempts petered out. In the meanwhile, Aibak was given a stout fight by the hardy Solanki kings.

2. The second major attempt was around 1320 CE, when Khusrau eliminated Qutb-ud-din Mubarak Khilji ( the son of Ala-ud-din and a particularly vicious jihadi).Khusrau was of Gujarati origin and most probably from the Bharwad community of Gujarat. Around 50,000 of his kinsmen stormed Delhi and for the brief period of a few months, Delhi was back in Hindu hands. But this ended with Khusrau’s defeat and death at the hands of Ghiyaz-ud-din Tughlaq.

3. The third major attempt was actually the near installation of Sardar Patel as the first prime minister of India. But this was botched up by the “secular” cohorts of the  Congress who choose an Anglicised- Islamised Nehru. The disastrous results this had for Hindu society are there for all to see.

4. This attempt is the fourth major attempt, and by the looks of it Lata Naresh Narendra Modi is ready to become the first major Hindu ruler of Delhi after Vikramaditya Hemachandra.

This brings me back to the nagging thought at the back of my mind: Are we being setup for a fall by the Christian countries? What will be their next move?

They will in all probability use the Islamic jihadi’s and the Chinese Hans to launch a coordinated strike against Bharata. This will most likely culminate in the fifth battle of Panipat. How many years down the line? It’s anybody’s guess. In my reckoning, not very far down the line. If we keep in mind the fact that the Congress has always been a proxy for Christian interests, the gradual erosion of our military and economic capability begins to make sense. The first thing to do for the new government is to setup a strong reserve to counter a Panipat type situation, wherein the invader walks away albeit badly wounded.This time no invader should be allowed to even crawl back out of Bharata.

Despite the “technological” advances since 1761 CE we are actually in a much weaker position in terms of clarity of purpose and the single mindedness to defend Dharma.

December 31, 2013

2013 in review

Filed under: Uncategorized — Yogeshwar Shastri @ 8:14 am

The WordPress.com stats helper monkeys prepared a 2013 annual report for this blog.

Here’s an excerpt:

The concert hall at the Sydney Opera House holds 2,700 people. This blog was viewed about 25,000 times in 2013. If it were a concert at Sydney Opera House, it would take about 9 sold-out performances for that many people to see it.

Click here to see the complete report.

August 18, 2013

Ebook: Now it can be Told

This book gives an eyewitness account of the mass killings of Hindus and Sikhs by organised Muslim mobs in Lahore and punjab during the partition of 1947.

Now it can be told

May 25, 2013

Tutorial on Converting books on Digital Library of India to PDF format

Filed under: Tutorials — Yogeshwar Shastri @ 6:32 pm

This tutorial on converting DLI books to pdf format replaces the earlier tutorial I had posted. The tutorial I have created is in two parts :

1. An introduction to the digital sources of Indian history online.This covers most of the copyright free or open source resources.

2. The second part is the tutorial on converting the TIFF format books on DLI into readable PDF format.

This was a presentation I made at the seminar held at Pondicherry University from 4-5th April 2013. It was conducted by the Department of  History,Pondicherry University to commemorate completion of 25 years of the department. The seminar was an excellent experience and I had the opportunity to interact with several scholars in the field of epigraphy and history.My thanks to the staff and students of the Department of History for their excellent hospitality.

The tutorial is based on the DLI tutorial created by Vinay Shetty.My thanks to him for this great resource.

Pondicherry presentation 05-04-2013

May 16, 2013

Exclusive blog for Indian history ebooks

Dear all,

I am creating a ring of blogs exclusively devoted to Indian history,culture books. My plan is to upload as many books as possible.

The blogs  are as follows:

http://indianhistorybooks.wordpress.com/

http://indianhistorybooks2.wordpress.com/

https://indianhistorybooks3.wordpress.com

https://indianhistorybooks4.wordpress.com

https://indianhistorybooks5.wordpress.com

https://indianhistorybooks6.wordpress.com

https://asiaticsocietybooks.wordpress.com

https://asiaticsocietybooks2.wordpress.com/

https://asiaticsocietybooks3.wordpress.com/

The books already posted here will be left as is.

I will be uploading the entire Epigraphia Indica Series shortly.  Done! All volunes uploaded

April 11, 2013

New book : Jai Hind,The Story of a Rebel Daughter of India with the Rani of Jhansi Regiment

Jai Hind book cover reprint

Click here to download the sample chapter :  Sample Chapter from Jayhind

The book  “Jai Hind : The Story of a Rebel Daughter of India with the Rani of Jhansi Regiment” is the It is the explosive account of an Indian woman,who took up arms to drive out the British from India

We are reduced to a nation of clerks and coolies but the fire of liberty burns bright in our hearts. We were killed off in millions by famines and flood year after year. And yet we have managed to pass on the tiny spark to our children. And again and again the tiny spark has burst out into flames. Once again we are summoned by history to a conflagration. And we are ready to make ourselves living torches to set alight this vicious prison which is imperialism.”
—–An unknown Daughter of India

“ Chalo Delhi” ! Jai Hind”!… With these immortal slogans Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose raised the war cry of Indian independence. Thousands of men and women from all across Asia answered his appeal and joined the Indian National Army (INA).This book is the eye
witness account of one such participant of these ferocious battles which shook the foundation of the British rule in India.. This daughter of India took up the gun to fight with the Rani of Jhansi regiment of the INA.

This diary was first published in the form of a book by Janmabhoomi Prakashan Mandir, Mumbai in 1945. Sriyogi Publications is proud to reprint this book on the occasion of the 116th birth anniversery of Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose.

This is a limited edition print run.Grab your copy today before stocks run out!

You can purchase a copy of the  book here : http://sriyogibooksandpublications.com/index.php?route=product/product&product_id=571

March 10, 2013

Sources of Indian History

Filed under: History — Yogeshwar Shastri @ 4:51 pm
Tags: , ,

I am writing this post in response to a blog readers request for original  sources of historical information from the Dharmic fold.At this stage it is simply a haphazard collection of  what little I know.However over time I will give it form and structure,so that it becomes a kind of ready e recokner.I will be updating this regularly.

Excessive reliance on biased and bigoted narrative of Islamic historians has led to a skewed and wrong understanding of our history.Added to this is the air-brushing conducted by the establishment in India.Even amongst the Islamic sources the knowledge pool comes from a select collection of published manuscripts.The same lies are repeated ad nauseum.

My recommendations to anyone wishing to delve deeper into primary sources are :

1. Build up a knowledge of languages of the subject you wish to study. For e.g.this could be old gujarati,prakrit,Sanskrit etc. To uncover the truth one should have the readiness to go all the way.You should be in a postion to judge wether the translation is true to the original or does it introduce distortions to the understanding of the original manuscript/inscription.

2. Have a barebones knowledge of the conventionaly accepted timelines and be ready to throw them out of the window.During your research you will most likely come across an anamolous fact that flies in the face of the existing narrative.Dont ignore it,delve deeper and if required reconfigure your understanding of our history.

3. Your search should be for the truth.Nothing more,nothing less.

 

I know some readers of my blog are pretty well versed in history of North/Western India.I would request them to add more information,which I will append here (with credits to the poster).

Sources of  the history of Uttarapatha  & Lata ( North India and Gujarat)

My knowledge of  the history of North and Western India is barebones at the best.However I will give sources as I come across them.

1. Prabandha : Prabandha’s are medieval mahakavya’s ( epic poems) authored by Jaina monks.These are written in Prakrit,Sanskrit and old Gujarati/Rajasthani.These are an invaluable source of  Dharmic history.Some of the famous ones are

i. Prabandhachintamani of Merutunga,

ii. Kanhadade Prabandha : This was  transalted by Prof. V.S. Bhatnagar and published by Aditya prakashan. It  describes the epic battles of  Kanhadeva Songara, the ruler of Jalor against Ala-ud-din Khilji.The devastation of  Lata at the hands of the Islamic hordes is described in detail.

The biggest repositories of  these works are in Gujarat and Rajasthan.They are in Jaina bhandara’s (manuscript collections),Indological institutes ( L.D.Institute of Indology in Ahmedabad,Rajasthan Oriental Research Institute,Oriental Institute at Baroda etc).

 

January 15, 2013

The History of the Reddi Kingdoms, by Malampalli Somasekhara Sarma

A seminal book by the scholar and epigraphist Malampalli Somasekhara Sarma.Details the history of the Reddi kingdoms of Kondavidu and Pithapuram.

 

The history of the reddi kindoms

January 14, 2013

Vijayangar Chapter 6: The Great war of Liberation

As seen in the previous chapters the low point in the history of India came in the 1320’s. Long standing dynasties such as the Kakatiya’s of Warangal, the Seuna Yadavas of Devagiri,the Pandya rulers of Madurai were overthrown or extinguished by the Islamic war machine. The only Hindu kingdom left standing in South India was the Hoysala kingdom of Karnataka led by Veera Ballala III.

The just and equitable rule of the Hindu kings was replaced by an oppressive and merciless administration. The land was parcelled out to various Amirs, Maliks and Muslim jehadi’s from around the world. These parasites sucked the blood of the common people and destroyed the traditional way of life. The terrible sufferings of the people are illustrated in the Madhuravijayam and the Vilasa grant of Prolaya Nayaka. Temples fell into disuse and the old system of endowments was discontinued in favour of extorting money from the people. With the disappearance of the agraharas the Vedic system of learning was strangulated.

But the typhoon of Hindu revival in the South was coming…

 

6. The Eleven year war of Liberation (1325-1336 CE)

Map of War of Liberation

Fig. 6.1 Map of the war of Liberation

No sooner had the dust settled on the Tughlaq invasions that the Hindus of South India mounted a ferocious counter offensive. Out of the ashes of the fallen kingdoms arose a confederacy of Hindu chiefs, each determined to drive the Turuksha’s into the ground. The table below give the names and brief details of the prominent Hindu leaders of this great war of liberation.

Name of Hindu King/Chief Brief Description Area of Operations Year active from
Veera Ballala III Hoysala ruler of  Karnataka Karnataka, extending upto river Ponniyan in Tamil Nadu 1324-1342
Prolaya Nayaka (Musunuri family) One of the chief Nayaka of the erstwhile Kakatiya kings. Coastal Andhra with headquarters at Rekapalli 1325-1333
Kapaya Mayaka (Musunuri family) Cousin of Proalaya Nayaka and leader of confederacy of 75 Nayaka’s. Coastal Andhra,western Andhra and Telangana 1325-1367
Prolaya Vema Reddi Powerful Nayaka and founder of the  Reddi kingdom of Kondavidu. Region around Kondavidu in Andhra. Initial base at Addanki. 1325-1353
Chalukya Somadeva, Chalukya prince and ancestor of the Aravidu emperors of Vijayanagar Western Andhra with base at Kurnool. 1325- ?
Ariyseti Annamantri Surviving general of the erstwhile Kakatiya kingdom. Coastal Andhra 1325-?
Kolani Prataparudradeva Surviving general of the erstwhile Kakatiya kingdom. Coastal Andhra 1325-?
Racherla Singama Nayaka, Founder of the Velama kingdom of Rachakonda. Telangana 1325-1361
Ekramnath Sambuvararaya Ruler of Rajgambhira rajyam Headquarters at Kanchipuram. Kingdom comprised of  North Arcot district in Tamil Nadu and parts of Chittor district in Andhra Pradesh. 1325- ?

                 Table  6‑0‑1 The Main Leaders of the War of Independence

 

The below table gives the main opponents of the Hindus in the Deccan and the south:

The Hindu Confederacy Their Tughlaq Opponents
1.Veera Ballala III2.Kapaya Nayaka and 75 Nayakas’s

3.Prolaya Nayaka

4.Somadeva

5.Ekramanth Sambuvararaya

6.Prolaya Vema Reddi

7.Racherla Singama Nayaka

8.Kolani Prataparudradeva

9.Ariyseti Annamantri

1. Mohammed Tughlaq, Sultan of Delhi.2. Malik Muhammad, governor of Kampili.

3. Malik Maqbul,governor of the Warangal division of Telanagana.

4. Shihab Sultani, governor of the Bidar division of Telangana.

5. Qutlugh Khan, governor of Devagiri (1335-1342).

6. Jalal-ud-din Ahsan Shah,kotwal of Madura

Table 6‑2  The chief opponents from the Hindu and the Muslim side.

6.1 The war of liberation in Karnataka

In Karnataka the core area around Mysore right upto Tiruvannamalai in Tamil Nadu was in the hands of Veera Ballala III. By 1328 CE, he was back in action and directing operations against the Muslim garrisons ensconced in Tamil Nadu. In 1327 CE, the situation was made serious by Muhammad Tughlaq shifting his capital to Devagiri from Delhi. This put enormous Muslim armies dangerously close to the Hoysala capital of Dvarasamudra.

To check the danger emanating from the north, Veera Ballala entrusted the task of defending the Northern frontier of the Hoysala kingdom to the five Sangama brothers of which Harihara and Bukkaraya are the most famous.The Sangama brothers who were Mahamandaleswara’s (Provincial governors) later went on to establish the Vijayanagar empire.

As a further precaution, Veera Ballala had established three capitals: Dvarasamudra,Kundani and Tiruvannamalai.This enabled him to mount a mobile defence against the Islamic incursions from Devagiri in the North, as well as secure his rear against the Muslims in Madurai. Tiruvannamalai was bang on the main road which linked Madurai to the North. For nearly fifteen years (1328-1342 CE) this city was his base of operations against the Muslim garrisons in Tamil Nadu. In the region of Anegondi and Kampili ferocious battles raged to drive out the Muslims.

6.1.1 A comparison of the armies of Veera Ballala and Mohammed Tughlaq

What was the strength of the army of Veera Ballala? From Ibn Batutas account, in 1342 CE Veera Ballala had 1, 00,000 infantry and 20,000 Muslim mercenaries in his army. In 1328 CE it is difficult to gauge his military strength, but it must have been considerable to go up against Mohammed Tughlaq.

To get an idea of the impossible odds facing the Hindus here are some numbers for Muhammad Tughlaq’s army:

Component of army

Estimated numbers

Horsemen (cavalry)

9,00,000

War elephants

3000

Turkish Mamluks

2000

Spearmen

1000

Eunuchs (all armed)

10,000

Bashmaqdars ( a type of bodyguard)

1000

Slaves

2,00,000

 Table   6‑3 The strength of Muhammad Tughlaq’s army.

Out of the nine lakh horsemen, the bulk accompanied Tughlaq on his campaigns while the rest were posted in various provincial garrisons around the country. In addition he could raise large forces for temporary expeditions .e.g. sometime before 1333 CE he raised and maintained an army of 3,70,000 horsemen to support his invasion of Khorasan (in Iran).This had to be disbanded after a year due to maintenance costs running in crores of tankas ( the currency of the day).

6.2 The war in Andhra desa

The final battle of the Kakatiya kingdom took place near Rajamahendravaram in 1323 CE. The cream of the kshatriya’s of Andhra perished in this terrible battle against Mohammed Tughlaq’s forces. But within two years of this disaster the banner of freedom was unfurled by the Musunuri chief Prolaya Nayaka and his cousin Kapaya Nayaka. With their headquarters at Rekapalli, they gathered around them 75 Nayakas (military chiefs) of the erstwhile Kakatiya kingdom. Promiment amongst the seventy five Nayakas were Prolaya Vema Reddi, Kopplua Prolaya Nayaka, Recharla Singama Nayaka and Manchikonda Ganapati Nayaka. In this heroic endeavour they were joined by surviving generals of the Kakatiya’s such as Ariyeti Annamantri and Kolani Rudradeva.

Prolaya Nayaka revived the old endowments and patronised Vedic learning. He also restored those temples which suffered destruction at the hands of the Islamic invaders. This liberating army of the Hindus moved swiftly and by 1328 CE coastal Andhra was liberated from the clutches of the Muslims. In western Andhra by 1329 CE they were joined by the Chalukya prince Somadeva, who from his base in Kondanavolu (Kurnool) launched attacks on the Muslim garrisons in the Bellary and Rayalseema regions. After fierce fighting, he retook the forts of Anegondi,Mudgal,Musalimadugu,Satanikota,Etagiri,Kunti and Sara. In concert with him, Veera Ballala attacked Kampili. Malik Muhammad the Tughlaq governor of Kampili was now facing simultaneous attacks from Somadeva and Veera Ballala. Somadeva defeated Malik Muhammad in a series of battles and managed to capture him along with his 6000 cavalry. However Muhammad managed to secure his freedom by making false promises.

By 1333 CE the position of the Muslims in Andhra had become precarious. The survivors retreated to Warangal which was under Malik Maqbul. At the same tine in 1335 CE, Muhammad Tughlaq descended into the Deccan to subdue the revolt of Jalal-ad-din Ahsan Shah (the kotwal of Madurai). Ahsan Shah had declared himself as an independent Sultan of Madura and minted coins in his own name. When Tughlaq was encamped in Warangal (or Bidar as per another account) a plague struck the city of Warangal .A majority of the Hindu population of that city perished along with a great part of Muhammad Tughlaqs army. Many seniors Malik’s and Amirs also perished due to the plague. Muhammad Tughlaq himself was taken sick and had to beat a hasty retreat. Ahsan Shah was left to his own devices in Madurai.

By 1336 CE the stage was clear for the liberation of Warangal. Like a hurricane Kapaya Nayaka swept into Telangana and liberated Warangal in 1336 CE. In this he was aided by Veera Ballala who sent forces to reinforce Kapaya. Warangal the declared as the capital of the short lived but glorious Musunuri kingdom. In Kondavidu, Prolaya Vema Reddi began to lay the foundations of the kingdom of the Reddi’s.

6.3  A bird’s eye view of the Scene at Delhi…

The period from 1325 CE   onwards was one of a general collapse of the Delhi sultanate. Till his death in 1351 CE Muhammad Tughlaq was constantly running from one end of his  short lived empire to the other, constantly fighting rebellions and uprisings. By 1336 CE the major part of South India was back in Hindu hands. The only aberration was the Sultanate of Madurai in Tamil Nadu.

Like the rule of other Muslim sultans, Muhammad Tughlaq’s rule was marked by extortionate taxation and oppression of the Hindu’s. The years from 1325 to 1340  CE were of one long famine in North India, especially in the Doab region of Uttar Pradesh. The doab region is one of the most fertile regions in India. Muhammad Tughlaqs oppressive policies had exacerbated the drought into a deadly famine. Hindus abandoned their lands and fled into the safety of the jungles. For this Muhammad Tughlaq organised hunts to kill them like wild animals. The decision to move the capital of the Sultanate to Devagiri in 1327 CE was dictated by many factors:

i. Primary amongst them was to check the wave of Hindu resurgence sweeping South India. Far flung places like Madurai were six months march from Delhi. Devagiri had the advantage in being centrally located and within striking range of the main centres of the liberation struggle i.e. Karnataka and Andhra.

ii. The famine in the countryside  had finally affected Delhi, as the supplies of corn into the city were disrupted by chaos in the countryside.To ease the  suffering of the Muslims in Delhi ,Mohammed Tughlaq ordered the evacuation of the Muslim residents of Delhi to prosperous Devagiri. The fact that it was exclusively the Muslim population that was transferred is indicated in the sources. Delhi had become a parasitical city whose prosperity depended on the exploitation of the Hindu countryside.

iii. The threat of Mongol invasions still loomed over Delhi. The geographical location of Delhi makes it inherently vulnerable to a straight thrust from the side of the Punjab. Once the buffer of Punjab is gone it is only a matter of time before the invader reaches Delhi. (As a side note: Punjab during this time was decimated by the rapacious policies of the  Delhi Sultans and the ravages of the Mongol invasions . During this period i.e. 1328 CE, famines stalked Punjab and the rivers changed their courses leading to thousands of people perishing in the ensuing cataclysmic floods.)

In 1329 CE the Mongol ruler Tarmashirin swept over  Delhi. At this crucial juncture most of the officers of the Tughlaq administration were in Devagiri. Mohammed Tughlaq had to buy Tarmashirin off with a huge bribe which nearly emptied the treasury. To make up for the bankrupt state Mohammed Tughlaq issued copper coins thus effectively devaluing the currency. This led to large scale forgeries and the hoarding of gold and silver by the people.

By 1333 CE rebellions had broken out all over the Tughlaq empire. The most pertinent for us is the declaration of indepence by the Jalal-ud-din Ahsan Shah; the kotwal of Madurai in 1335 CE.

The heroism of Veera Ballala, the tenacious bravery of Kapaya Nayaka,the foundation of the Vijayanagar empire, its life and death struggle against the Bahmani Sultanate and the Sultanate of Madurai will form the ensuing chapters.

 

References:

1. Vijayanagar,Never to be Forgotten Empire; Suryanarayan Row.

2. The Qarnuah Turks, Ishwari Prasad.

3.South India and her Muhammadan invaders; S.K.Aiyangar.

4.The History of the Reddi Kingdoms; Malampalli Somasekhara Sarma.

5. Prof.N.Venkataramanayya’s articles in Vijayanagar history in Itihaas, the journal of Andhra Pradesh State Archives,vol II,no.2,1975, Prolegomena to the Study of Vijayanagar.

6. Social and Political Life in the Vijayanagara Empire, B.A.Saletore,Vol I & II

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